Saturday, September 15, 2012

Phase Angle Control Of SCR Using AT89C51

Silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCR) are solidstate semiconductor devices that are usually used in power switching circuits. SCR controls the output signal by switching it ‘on’ or ‘off,’ thereby controlling the power to the load in context. The two primary modes of SCR control are phase-angle fired—where a partial waveform is passed every half cycle—and zerocrossing fired—where a portion of the complete waveforms is passed to regulate the power.

In the phase-angle controller, the firing pulse is delayed to turn on the SCR in the middle of every half cycle. This means that every time a part of an AC cycle is cut, the power to the load also gets cut. To deliver more or less power to the load, the phase angle is increased or decreased, thereby controlling the throughput power.

There are several ways to control the firing angle of SCR. This article describes a microcontroller AT89C51-based phase-angle controller. A microcontroller can be programmed to fire SCR over the full range of half cycles—from 0 to 180°—to get a good linear relationship between the phase angle and the delivered output power.

Some of the features of this microcontroller-based phase-angle controller for SCR are:

1. Utilises the zero-crossing detector circuit
2. Controls the phase angle from 0–162°
3. Displays the phase angle on an LCD panel
4. LED indicators are used for displaying the status of SCR
5. Increases or decreases the phase angle with intervals of 18°

Basically, the zero-crossing detector circuit interrupts the microcontroller after every 10 ms. This interrupt commands the microcontroller to generate some delay (in the range of 1ms to 9 ms). The user can increase or decrease the delay in intervals of 1 ms using switches. the SCR is then fired through the opto-coupler. This repeats after every 10 ms.

Saturday, September 8, 2012

Solar LED Lantern with battery charger

This solar LED lantern can be used as an emergency light. Its 6V battery can be charged either from 230V, 50Hz AC mains or a 12V, 10W solar panel. Two LED indicators have been provided—red LED (LED1) indicates battery charging and green LED (LED2) indicates fully-charged battery.

You can choose to charge the battery either from the mains power or the solar panel by using the single-pole, double-throw (SPDT) switch. Capacitor C1 (1000µF, 35V) removes ripples from the power supply and regulator IC LM7809 (IC1) provides regulated 9V DC to the emitter of pnp transistor T1 (TIP127/BD140) and pin 7 of op-amp IC CA3140 (IC2), which is configured in comparator mode.
 The reference voltage of 6.3V at pin 2 of IC2 is obtained through the combination of resistor R7 (1-kilo-ohm) and zener diode ZD1 (6.3V). The comparator controls charging of the battery. Pin 3 of IC2 is connected to the positive terminal of the battery to be charged through resistor R5. When the battery is fully charged, it stops charging and the green LED (LED2) glows to indicate the full-charge status.

When the battery voltage is low, diode D1 (1N4007) forward-biases and the battery connects (through resistor R3) to the collector of T1 for charging (indicated by the glowing of red LED1). Three high-wattage white LEDs (LED3 through LED5), such as KLHP3433 from Kwality Photonics, are used for lighting. These are switched on using switch S3. 

Saturday, September 1, 2012

Cellphone-Based Device Control With Voice Acknowledgement

Here is a circuit that lets you operate your home appliances like lights and water pump from your office or any other remote place. So if you forgot to switch off the lights or other appliances while going out, it helps you to turn off the appliance with your cellphone. Your cellphone works as the remote control for your home appliances. You can control the desired appliance by pressing the corresponding key. The system also gives you voice acknowledgement of the appliance status.

Circuit description
Fig.1 shows the circuit for cellphone based device control with voice acknowledgement. It comprises microcontroller AT89C51, DTMF decoder MT8870, voice recording/playback device APR9600 and a few discrete components.
Cellphone-Based Device Control With Voice Acknowledgement